The Perfect Enemy | Fatigue in COVID-19 survivors - News-Medical.Net
January 29, 2023

Fatigue in COVID-19 survivors – News-Medical.Net

Fatigue in COVID-19 survivors  News-Medical.Net

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Physical and mental fatigue, commonly referred to as asthenia, is characterized by a loss of energy, weakness, irritability, and anxiety. To combat prolonged asthenia, individuals may choose to incorporate minerals, vitamins, and nutrients to strengthen their bodies and provide the necessary energy for daily life.

Image Credit: PharmaNutra Spa

One such supplement is ApportAL®, which contains 19 essential nutrients for addressing physical and mental fatigue. The primary functions of its ingredients include:

  • Immune: promotes the normal functioning of the immune system
  • Muscle: contributes to the maintenance of normal muscle function
  • Antioxidant: promotes the protection of cells from oxidative stress
  • Energizing: contributes to normal energy metabolism and the reduction of fatigue

ApportAL® is an effective dietary supplement for individuals who require a quick energy recovery, suffer from periods of fatigue and frequent fatigue, are recovering from the flu, or have diets with low nutrient intake or deficiencies in specific nutrients. It is also beneficial for individuals who regularly engage in physical activity.

Image Credit: PharmaNutra Spa

It is important to note that the minerals within ApportAL®, such as iron, zinc, selenium, iodine, and magnesium, are in Sucrosomial® form, an innovative technology patented by Pharmanutra S.p.a. This technology encases the mineral within a matrix of phospholipids and sucrose esters of fatty acids, enabling high absorption and excellent gastrointestinal tolerability of these essential nutrients.

The virus that causes COVID-19 has long-term effects on some individuals, referred to as “chronic COVID syndrome” or “Long-COVID”. One of the most common symptoms of this condition is persistent fatigue, also known as tiredness, which may last for months after the end of the infection. This symptom has been reported in individuals of all ages, regardless of the severity of their original COVID-19 infection.

Image Credit: PharmaNutra Spa

A recent study was conducted in Italy, entitled “Fatigue in Covid-19 survivors: The potential impact of a nutritional supplement on muscle strength and functionby Dr. Vincenzo Galluzzo et al. of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “Agostino Gemelli” IRCCS of Rome (Italy).2

The aim of this study was the evaluation of a small group of participants who had been suffering from fatigue after previously having COVID-19 and their use of the daily supplement ‘ApportAL®‘. The study aimed to focus on the effect the supplement had on participants’ laboratory parameters, body composition, muscle function, and self-rated health.2

The study involved 30 subjects who had developed Post-COVID Syndrome following the acute phase of the disease. The subjects were instructed to take one sachet of ApportAL® per day for 28 consecutive days from the day of enrollment. Participants were evaluated on the first visit and during a control visit after taking ApportAL® for the first time.

Both evaluations (first and control) included several tests to measure the participant’s laboratory parameters, body composition, muscle function, and self-rated health:

  • Laboratory Parameters: The evaluation of participants’ standard blood biochemistry and ferritin levels.
  • Body Composition: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) was used for the analysis of participants’ body composition. 
  • Muscle Function: Several tests were conducted for the analysis of muscle function – including exhaustion strength time and hand grip strength tests. 
  • Self-Rated Health: A Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used to obtain an evaluation of self-rated health before COVID-19, at the first evaluation, and at the control.

The study’s results revealed a significant increase in muscle strength and improved physical performance among the participants. 

Image Credit: PharmaNutra Spa

In conclusion, the study demonstrated that COVID-19 survivors who were affected by fatigue that took ApportAL® for 28 days showed “a significant improvement in means of muscle strength and physical performance, associated with enhancement of self-rated health” between the first evaluation and the control evaluation.2

The main difference between this study and a previous one (M.S. Rossato et al., 2021) is that this study objectively demonstrates the benefit of using ApportAL® on the improvement of muscle strength and physical performance, leading to an overall improvement in the quality of life and well-being of subjects in the challenging recovery phase following an acute disease such as COVID-19. 

However, it is important to note that the “Fatigue in Covid-19 survivors” study did present a couple of limitations.2 Firstly, there was no control group present, and secondly, the study sample was limited (such as male participants). Alongside this, as this was an intrinsic study, the role of confounding factors cannot be undermined (in particular, the lifestyle habits of participants may have changed after the initial taking of the supplement used in the study). 

The “Fatigue in Covid-19 survivors” study was supported by Pharmanutra, Fondazione Memmo, Fondazione Angelini, Danone, and Nutricia.


  1. Rossato MS, et al.Observational study on the benefit of a nutritional supplement, supporting immune function and energy metabolism, on chronic fatigue associated with the SARS-CoV-2 post-infection progress”. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Dec; 46:510-518,
  2. Galluzzo V., et al. “Fatigue in Covid-19 survivors: The potential impact of a nutritional supplement on muscle strength and function”. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2022 Oct; 51:215-221,,
  3. Dennis A., et al. “Multiorgan impairment in low-risk individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome: a prospective, community-based study.” BMJ Open. 2021; 11e04839, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048391,
  4. Long COVID or Post-COVID Conditions –

About PharmaNutra Spa

Founded and led by the President Andrea Lacorte and Vice President Roberto Lacorte, PharmaNutra was established in 2003.

It develops unique nutritional supplements and innovative medical devices, handling the entire production process, from proprietary raw materials to the finished product.

The effectiveness of its products is documented by considerable scientific proof, including 112 publications.

The Group distributes and sells its products in Italy and abroad. In Italy, products are sold through a network of 150 Pharmaceutical Representatives serving doctors and also exclusively selling PharmaNutra products to pharmacies throughout Italy. Products are sold in over 50 countries abroad, through 39 partners selected from among the finest pharmaceutical companies. PharmaNutra leads the market in the production of iron-based nutritional supplements under the SiderAL® brand, where it boasts a number of important patents on Sucrosomial® technology.

Over the years, the Group has developed a precise strategy for the management and production of intellectual property, founded on the integrated management of all the various elements: proprietary raw materials, patents, brands and clinical evidence.

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