The Perfect Enemy | China: Free ‘blank paper’ protesters and allow free speech about Covid-19 - ARTICLE 19 - Article 19
February 26, 2024

China: Free ‘blank paper’ protesters and allow free speech about Covid-19 – ARTICLE 19 – Article 19

China: Free ‘blank paper’ protesters and allow free speech about Covid-19 – ARTICLE 19  Article 19

On International Women’s Day, 25 organisations call on the Chinese government to release and drop all charges against editor Cao Zhixin (曹芷馨), writer Li Siqi (李思琪), accountant Li Yuanjing (李元婧), and teacher Zhai Dengrui (翟登蕊). Beijing police arrested the four women for participating in a memorial protest on 27 November, 2022. We also call on Chinese authorities to release and drop charges against all other individuals in China detained for freely expressing themselves during the ‘blank paper’ protests of November and December, many of whom were women, and to end its suppression of speech about the Covid-19 pandemic.

On 27 November, Cao Zhixin, Li Siqi, Li Yuanjing, and Zhai Dengrui and dozens of other Beijing residents attended a memorial on the banks of the Liangma River to commemorate the victims of a fire in Urumqi in the Uyghur region three days prior. The vigil morphed into a protest against the Chinese government’s then-in-place ‘zero-Covid’ policies as well as expressions of broader discontent with the Chinese Communist Party. It was part of a wave of protests in China that broke out in reportedly at least 31 cities that weekend. Two days after the protest, on 29 November, Beijing police summoned the four women and other attendees for questioning, and confiscated their phones and other devices. They were then released.

Beijing Chaoyang District police returned and criminally detained Li Siqi and Li Yuanjing on December 18, Zhai Dengrui on 22 December, and Cao Zhixin on 23 December. Other individuals were detained during this police sweep but later released on bail. Cao recorded a video after the detentions began, which was released by her friends on 16 January. In the video she said several of her friends were forced to sign blank criminal detention notices that didn’t list any charges. She also asserted the motivations of the group: ‘We care about society. What we did was a normal expression as citizens.’ 

On 19 January, 2023, the four women were formally arrested on charges of ‘picking quarrels and provoking trouble,’ and the following day Cao Zhixin was granted the first visit with her lawyer. All four are being held at Chaoyang District Detention Center in Beijing. The detentions of Cao Zhixin, Li Siqi, Li Yuanjing, and Zhai Dengrui appear to be solely in retaliation for attending the 27 November protest and using the Telegram messaging app, which many protesters used to organise. They face up to five years in prison, or ten years if their offence is deemed serious. 

These four women, all in their mid-20s, had no activism background. Their friends describe them as feminists with global perspectives, an interest in literature, and combating social injustice. They had all recently graduated with postgraduate degrees from prestigious universities. Cao Zhixin worked in a ‘dream job’ as an editor with Peking University Press, Li Siqi and Li Yuanjing had both studied overseas, and Zhai Dengrui had planned to apply to study in Norway.

On 17 February, the European Union called on the Chinese government to release all four women, asserting that they had been detained in disregard of due process requirements. 

These four women have not committed any offence under international or domestic Chinese law. China’s constitution purports to enshrine the right to freedom of speech and the right to freely express criticism of government policies. By targeting Cao Zhixin, Li Siqi, Li Yuanjing, and Zhai Dengrui with criminal prosecution, the Chinese government is violating their internationally recognised rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly.

The following 25 organisations call on the Chinese government to immediately and unconditionally release Cao Zhixin, Li Siqi, Li Yuanjing, and Zhai Dengrui and all other ‘blank paper’ protesters, and to end its crackdown on free expression around the Covid-19 pandemic.

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ARTICLE 19

Campaign for Uyghurs

Chinese Human Rights Defenders 

CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation

Committee for Freedom in Hong Kong Foundation

English PEN

FIDH – International Federation for Human Rights

Freedom House

Georgetown Center for Asian Law

Hong Kong Democracy Council

Human Rights in China

Human Rights Watch

Humanitarian China

Independent Chinese PEN Center

Index on Censorship

International Service for Human Rights 

Judicial Reform Foundation

National Committee of the Democratic Party of China

PEN America

PEN Canada

PEN International

PEN Sweden

Uyghur Human Rights Project

Washingtonians Supporting Hong Kong (DC4HK)